What is Brucellosis?
Here is an exerpt from UNEB on brucellosis. "Brucellosis
(contagious abortion, Bangs disease). Although
federal and state regulations have helped to control
this disease, brucellosis is still a threat. Brucellosis
is caused by the bacterium Brucella abortus and
it is spread via infected placentas, vaginal discharges
and aborted fetuses. Following the ingestion of
B. abortus, susceptible cows or heifers may have
abortions, retained placentas, weak calves or
infertility problems. Milk from an infected cow
also may harbor B. abortus. The infected milk
creates a public health problem because B. abortus
causes brucellosis ("undulant fever")
What is the cause of mastitis?
What are the clinical signs for it? And how can
it be treated?
Mastitis occurs most frequently when you have
a heavy milking cow and a calf that is not eating
There a number of causes: stress infection, stepping
on the bag, etc. One of the more prominent signs
would be painful swelling in the udder. Treat
dairy cattle with antibiotics usually up the quarter
that is infected, but if you don't have a good
diagnosis as to what strain of bacteria, it might
not be easy to find the right antibiotic. you
must go for antibiotic sensitivity test.
What is avian influenza?
Avian influenza, or “bird flu”, is
a contagious disease of animals caused by viruses
that normally infect only birds and, less commonly,
pigs. Avian influenza viruses are highly species-specific,
but have, on rare occasions, crossed the species
barrier to infect humans.
In domestic poultry, infection with avian influenza
viruses causes two main forms of disease, distinguished
by low and high extremes of virulence. The so-called
“low pathogenic” form commonly causes
only mild symptoms (ruffled feathers, a drop in
egg production) and may easily go undetected.
The highly pathogenic form is far more dramatic.
It spreads very rapidly through poultry flocks,
causes disease affecting multiple internal organs,
and has a mortality that can approach 100%, often
within 48 hours.
Which viruses cause
highly pathogenic disease?
Influenza A viruses1 have 16 H subtypes and 9
N subtypes2. Only viruses of the H5 and H7 subtypes
are known to cause the highly pathogenic form
of the disease. However, not all viruses of the
H5 and H7 subtypes are highly pathogenic and not
all will cause severe disease in poultry.
On present understanding, H5 and H7 viruses are
introduced to poultry flocks in their low pathogenic
form. When allowed to circulate in poultry populations,
the viruses can mutate, usually within a few months,
into the highly pathogenic form. This is why the
presence of an H5 or H7 virus in poultry is always
cause for concern, even when the initial signs
of infection are mild.
Do migratory birds spread
highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses?
The role of migratory birds in the spread of highly
pathogenic avian influenza is not fully understood.
Wild waterfowl are considered the natural reservoir
of all influenza A viruses. They have probably
carried influenza viruses, with no apparent harm,
for centuries. They are known to carry viruses
of the H5 and H7 subtypes, but usually in the
low pathogenic form. Considerable circumstantial
evidence suggests that migratory birds can introduce
low pathogenic H5 and H7 viruses to poultry flocks,
which then mutate to the highly pathogenic form.
In the past, highly pathogenic viruses have been
isolated from migratory birds on very rare occasions
involving a few birds, usually found dead within
the flight range of a poultry outbreak. This finding
long suggested that wild waterfowl are not agents
for the onward transmission of these viruses.
Recent events make it likely that some migratory
birds are now directly spreading the H5N1 virus
in its highly pathogenic form. Further spread
to new areas is expected.
have been affected by outbreaks in poultry?
From mid-December 2003 through early February
2004, poultry outbreaks caused by the H5N1 virus
were reported in eight Asian nations (listed in
order of reporting): the Republic of Korea, Viet
Nam, Japan, Thailand, Cambodia, Lao People’s
Democratic Republic, Indonesia, and China. Most
of these countries had never before experienced
an outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza
in their histories.
In early August 2004, Malaysia reported its first
outbreak of H5N1 in poultry, becoming the ninth
Asian nation affected. Russia reported its first
H5N1 outbreak in poultry in late July 2005, followed
by reports of disease in adjacent parts of Kazakhstan
in early August. Deaths of wild birds from highly
pathogenic H5N1 were reported in both countries.
Almost simultaneously, Mongolia reported the detection
of H5N1 in dead migratory birds. In October 2005,
H5N1 was confirmed in poultry in Turkey and Romania.
Outbreaks in wild and domestic birds are under
Japan, the Republic of Korea, and Malaysia have
announced control of their poultry outbreaks and
are now considered free of the disease. In the
other affected areas, outbreaks are continuing
with varying degrees of severity.
How do people become infected?
Direct contact with infected poultry, or surfaces
and objects contaminated by their faeces, is presently
considered the main route of human infection.
To date, most human cases have occurred in rural
or periurban areas where many households keep
small poultry flocks, which often roam freely,
sometimes entering homes or sharing outdoor areas
where children play. As infected birds shed large
quantities of virus in their faeces, opportunities
for exposure to infected droppings or to environments
contaminated by the virus are abundant under such
conditions. Exposure is considered most likely
during slaughter, defeathering, butchering, and
preparation of poultry for cooking.
What drugs are available
Two drugs (in the neuraminidase inhibitors class),
oseltamivir (commercially known as Tamiflu) and
zanamivir (commercially known as Relenza) can
reduce the severity and duration of illness caused
by seasonal influenza. The efficacy of the neuraminidase
inhibitors depends, among others, on their early
administration ( within 48 hours after symptom
onset). For cases of human infection with H5N1,
the drugs may improve prospects of survival, if
administered early, but clinical data are limited.
The H5N1 virus is expected to be susceptible to
the neuraminidase inhibitors. Antiviral resistance
to neuraminidase inhibitors has been clinically
negligible so far but is likely to be detected
during widespread use during a pandemic.
Which vaccines are available
in the department?
H S Alum Ppt
P P R
Sheep Pox Vaccine
What is the vaccination
schedule of Cattle & Buffaloes?