Disaster Management »» Mitigation Strategy
A. FLOOD

6.1 CAUSES OF FLOODS

The floods can occur because of two reasons:
1. Natural Features
2. Man Made Features

6.1.1 NATURAL FEATURES

1. PHYSIOGRAPHY
Rohtak District has saucer type of physiography. There are several pockets of low-lying areas in the district from which natural flow of rainwater is not possible. Since these depressions area not connected by drains. Due to its topographical configuration, rainwater finds natural flow in Rohtak District from the adjoining districts of Panipat and Jind. (Flood Control Order Rohtak, 1996). The surface as well as the ground water get accumulates in the district and the flood occurs.

2. RAIN FALL
The total amount of average rainfall in the district is about 50 Cm annually. But during September 3 to 5, 1995 more than 90-cm rainfall occurred on these three days. Such a heavy down pour resulted in devastating floods in the district. (Flood Control Order Rohtak, 1996).

3. HIGH WATER TABLE
Higher water table is also one of the important reasons for floods in the district. The average underground water is just 3 meters below the surface. The rainwater could not penetrate into the surface and remains on the surface also there is no natural outlet for the surface water resulting into the floods. (Flood Control Order, Rohtak, 1996).

4. SHEET FLOW
High underground water table in the district surrounding areas result in sheet flow of water which moves from villages to villages causing havoc and destruction. (Flood Control Order Rohtak, 1996).

1. MAN MADE FEATURES
The problem of floods is further accentuated by the existence of man-made barriers like the networks of roads and canals, which obstruct the natural flow of water. Notable among these obstructions are the Jawahar Lal Nehru canal and Jhajjar sub branch as well as the State highways passing through the district. Major damage to crops is caused due to flooding of such depressions in the district. 1995 floodwater were trapped in the Meham and Kalanaur area by the B.S.B leading to water accumulation. The reason for flood in Rohtak City was that the railway line (Rohtak-Panipat) was uprooted and the water infiltrated in the city. In the same way village Mokhra and adjoining villages got flooded because of N. H. 10 was disconnected which was obstructing the natural flow of water. These instances show that the transportation network here is faulty and is an obstruction in the natural drainage (General Observations)

Excessive discharge in drain no. 8 can cause breach in the drain endangering not only rural area but also Rohtak town, as it happened during the floods in the year 1960, 1980 and recently in 1995. (Flood Control Order Rohtak, 1996).

Flood havoc is also caused in the district due to inadequate capacity of major drainage network. In the event of excessive rainfall, congestion in the major drains effects crops in a large number of villages of the district. Apart from drain no. 8 sometimes-heavy congestion is caused in the catchment area of K.C.B. (Kuttana, Chhudani, Bhupania) drain due to not cleaning of the drain in Delhi, Territory.

Settlements also become one reason for floods. E.g. Rohtak City is located in the way of natural drainage. The natural drainage of the surrounding area is towards Kanheli village (situated in the south east of city). But because of the expansion of the city, the natural drainage has been obstructed resulting into floods. (General Observations)

1. WATER LOGGING
Water is one of the basic requirements of mankind for domestic and agriculture purposes. The water table, nearly 115 year before was in between 30 to 70 meters. The canals were introduced for the purpose of agricultural development and from here onwards the water table started rising and creating alarming conditions in certain pockets in district. The waterlogging problem has become serious from last few years and by 1998 the total water logged area in the district has reached upto 62%. This problem is critical along canals and at some places the water table has been exposed to the surface causing damage to land and crops. (Agriculture Department; Ground Water cell Rohtak)
1. WATER TABLE CONDITION:

Over 98% of the total areas of the district lie within 10 meters depth of under ground water. The area under water logging is increasing very rapidly. In the year 1994 only 11.1% and 34.1% area was water logged before and after monsoons respectively. (See Map 3.2 and 3.3) But in the year 1998 these respective figures has increased upto 41.6% and 61.8% in the same time periods. 1995 floods enhance the problem of water logging. Following table shows the trend of water logging since 1994 to 1998 in June & October.

Table No. 6.2

WATER LOGGED AREA (1994-98)

Before Monsoon (in %)
After Monsoon (in %)
Tehsils
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
Meham
4.9
6.6
49.2
44.8
35.7
22.1
48.0
52.0
49.9
45.9
Rohtak
16.2

30.1

61.8
59.1
52.5
53.1
95.6
98.3
89.2
89.1
District
11.1
16.4
47.8
45.7
41.6
34.1
68.7
72.5
62.2
61.8

Source: Agriculture Department: Groundwater cell, Rohtak

The water table in the district Rohtak is rising at the rate of 0.02 meters/annum. It is clear from the table that highest area under water logging is in Rohtak which was only 30.1 % in June and Reached upto 95.6% after the floods.

2. GROUND WATER QUALITY
About 10 million years ago the area of Rohtak district was submerged under ocean hence originally the quality of ground water is saline. On the basis of electric conductivity of ground water its quality is classified as under.

Table No. 6.3

Ground water Quality

EC Value in micro mhos/ cm

Quality

<2000

Fresh

2000-4000
Marginal Fresh
4000-6000
Marginal
> 6000

Saline

Source: Agriculture Department; Ground Water cell, Rohtak

1. GROUND WATER QUALITY BEFORE MONSOON
According to June 1995 figures, out of total area only 11.3% area comes under fresh category & rest 39.8%, 25.5% and 23.2% fresh, marginal & saline quality respectively. (See Map No. 3.4) The fresh water is available in pockets, mainly along the canals and drains and near the water bodies. Fresh water is available at shallower depths whereas the quality deteriorates along with depth.

Table No. 6.4

Ground Water Quality (Before Monsoon 1995)

Tehsils
Area In Percentage
Fresh

(0-2000)*

Marginal Fresh

(2000-4000)*

Marginal

(4000-6000)*

Saline

(> 6000)*

Meham
12.4
47.1
15.1
25.3
Rohtak
15.1
34.0
21.9
28.9
District
11.3
39.8
25.5
23.2
* EC Value
* Source: Agriculture Department; Ground Water cell Rohtak

1. GROUND WATER QUALITY AFTER MONSOON
After the monsoons ground water quality is improved. In the flood period area under saline water came down upto 6.3% from 23.2% (See map 5.5). Area under fresh water has incresed around three times after the floods.

Table No.6.5

Ground Water Quality (After Monsoon 1995)

Tehsils
Area in %
Fresh

(0-2000)*

Marginal Fresh

(2000-4000)*

Marginal

(4000-6000)*

Saline

(> 6000)*

Meham
26.2
45.8
23.3
4.4
Rohtak
36.2
25.6
25.3
2.7
District
31.8
37.1
23.9
6.3
* EC Value
* Source: Agriculture Department; Ground Water cell Rohtak

Tehsil wise details of water quality from 1994 onwards for the periods of before and after are given in Annexe no. 1-10. These tables show that the rainfall has an impact on the ground water quality. The total area under the saline water DDCReases after monsoon period because fresh water is increased & improves the quality of ground water. The same trend can be seen in case of fresh water. The amount of fresh water increases from June to October. Once the rainwater adds up in the ground water; it improves the quality of ground water. The impact of floods can also be seen on the quality of ground water. The ground water Quality has improved after the 1995 floods. But after one year area under saline water has been started increasing again. If Tehsils area categorised on the bases of saline water in June 1998, maximum area under saline water was Rohtak (10.2%) followed by Meham (5.9%).

Table No. 6.6

INDICATORS OF ECOLOGICAL DEGRADATION (1995)

Tehsils
% of Flood Effected Vilages To Total Villages
% of Badly Flood Effected Villages To Total Villages
% of Water Logged Area To Total Area

(Before Monsoon)

% of Water Logged Area To Total Area

(After Monsoon)

% of Saline Water Area To Total Area

(Before Monsoon)

% of Saline Water Area To Total Area

(After Monsoon)

Meham
100
8
6.6
48
25.3
5.6
Rohtak
96.5
62
30.1
95.6
28.9
2.9
Rohtak district
           

* Source: Flood Control Office, Rohtak
* Agriculture Department; Ground Water cell Rohtak

 
 
   
   
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