The floods can occur because of two reasons:
1. Natural Features
2. Man Made Features
6.1.1 NATURAL FEATURES
Rohtak District has saucer type of physiography.
There are several pockets of low-lying areas in
the district from which natural flow of rainwater
is not possible. Since these depressions area
not connected by drains. Due to its topographical
configuration, rainwater finds natural flow in
Rohtak District from the adjoining districts of
Panipat and Jind. (Flood Control Order Rohtak,
1996). The surface as well as the ground water
get accumulates in the district and the flood
2. RAIN FALL
The total amount of average rainfall in the district
is about 50 Cm annually. But during September
3 to 5, 1995 more than 90-cm rainfall occurred
on these three days. Such a heavy down pour resulted
in devastating floods in the district. (Flood
Control Order Rohtak, 1996).
3. HIGH WATER TABLE
Higher water table is also one of the important
reasons for floods in the district. The average
underground water is just 3 meters below the surface.
The rainwater could not penetrate into the surface
and remains on the surface also there is no natural
outlet for the surface water resulting into the
floods. (Flood Control Order, Rohtak, 1996).
4. SHEET FLOW
High underground water table in the district surrounding
areas result in sheet flow of water which moves
from villages to villages causing havoc and destruction.
(Flood Control Order Rohtak, 1996).
1. MAN MADE FEATURES
The problem of floods is further accentuated
by the existence of man-made barriers like the
networks of roads and canals, which obstruct the
natural flow of water. Notable among these obstructions
are the Jawahar Lal Nehru canal and Jhajjar sub
branch as well as the State highways passing through
the district. Major damage to crops is caused
due to flooding of such depressions in the district.
1995 floodwater were trapped in the Meham and
Kalanaur area by the B.S.B leading to water accumulation.
The reason for flood in Rohtak City was that the
railway line (Rohtak-Panipat) was uprooted and
the water infiltrated in the city. In the same
way village Mokhra and adjoining villages got
flooded because of N. H. 10 was disconnected which
was obstructing the natural flow of water. These
instances show that the transportation network
here is faulty and is an obstruction in the natural
drainage (General Observations)
Excessive discharge in drain no. 8 can cause
breach in the drain endangering not only rural
area but also Rohtak town, as it happened during
the floods in the year 1960, 1980 and recently
in 1995. (Flood Control Order Rohtak, 1996).
Flood havoc is also caused in the district due
to inadequate capacity of major drainage network.
In the event of excessive rainfall, congestion
in the major drains effects crops in a large number
of villages of the district. Apart from drain
no. 8 sometimes-heavy congestion is caused in
the catchment area of K.C.B. (Kuttana, Chhudani,
Bhupania) drain due to not cleaning of the drain
in Delhi, Territory.
Settlements also become one reason for floods.
E.g. Rohtak City is located in the way of natural
drainage. The natural drainage of the surrounding
area is towards Kanheli village (situated in the
south east of city). But because of the expansion
of the city, the natural drainage has been obstructed
resulting into floods. (General Observations)
1. WATER LOGGING
Water is one of the basic requirements of mankind
for domestic and agriculture purposes. The water
table, nearly 115 year before was in between 30
to 70 meters. The canals were introduced for the
purpose of agricultural development and from here
onwards the water table started rising and creating
alarming conditions in certain pockets in district.
The waterlogging problem has become serious from
last few years and by 1998 the total water logged
area in the district has reached upto 62%. This
problem is critical along canals and at some places
the water table has been exposed to the surface
causing damage to land and crops. (Agriculture
Department; Ground Water cell Rohtak)
1. WATER TABLE CONDITION:
Over 98% of the total areas of the district
lie within 10 meters depth of under ground water.
The area under water logging is increasing very
rapidly. In the year 1994 only 11.1% and 34.1%
area was water logged before and after monsoons
respectively. (See Map 3.2 and 3.3) But in the
year 1998 these respective figures has increased
upto 41.6% and 61.8% in the same time periods.
1995 floods enhance the problem of water logging.
Following table shows the trend of water logging
since 1994 to 1998 in June & October.