Disaster Management »» Profile of Study Area
2.1 LOCATION
Rohtak district is located in southeastern part of Haryana State and constitutes a major part of eastern Haryana plain. Rohtak District, a part of eastern Haryana plain is bordered by Sonepat in north east and Jind districts in the north, Jhajjar District in the South, Hissar district in the north west and Bhiwani in the West. The district headquarter is one of the eight identified priority towns in National Capital Region. Thus the location plays a vital role for the development of the district. Due to proximity to National capital, the developmental activities are taking place very rapidly. The district has witnessed rapid industrialisation, urbanisation, diversification in agriculture, change in occupation structure. The district is situated on the National Highway No. 10 leading from Delhi to Hissar.

2.2 ADMINISTRATIVE SETUP
Rohtak is one of the oldest districts of the state, which has been reorganised many times. The district is divided into Rohtak and Meham tehsil for administrative convenience. These two tehsil further divided in five community development blocks i.e. Meham, Lakhan Majra, Rohtak, Kalanaur and Sampla.

The detail of the villages per community development blocks is given below in the table no .1

table no .1

NUMBER OF VILLAGES BY COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT BLOCK

District
Tehsil
Development block
Villages
Rohtak
Meham
Meham
26
Lakhan Majra
18
Rohtak
Rohtak

34

Kalanaur
42
Sampla
23
                Total:-     
Source: census of India, 1991
2.2.1. BLOCK PROFILE

2.2.1.1. ROHTAK
The Rohtak block was created in 1954 with 56 villages and one town. It is the mostly populated block in the district It has a rural population of 159456living wth in the area of 23256ha. It is industrially developed block having 7 large and medium industries and lots of small-scale industries are working in the Block. One of Postgraduate Medical College of the state is situated at Rohtak.

2.2.1.2. LAKHAN MAJRA
The block was formed in the year 1974. It was a rural area of 15540 ha and rural population of 54809person spread over in 18 villages. The economy of the block is mostly dependent on agricultural activities.

2.2.1.3. MEHAM
The Block is situated in the north west of the district. The block has a rural area of 36977ha. And total population of 1202112 person spread over 36 villages. Canals are main source of irrigation and agriculture is the main occupation in the block.

2.2.1.4. SAMPLA
Sampla block is situated on the southeastern part of the district. The rural area of the block is 22400 ha covering 25villages and It has a rural population of 101249 persons. Industrial growth is gaining momentum Sampla. Agricultural implements are the main industrial products.

2.2.1.5. KALANAUR
Kalanaur block is situated on the southwestern part of the district There are 23 villages comprises of 170284 population with an area of 32973Ha.the economy of the block is mainly agrarian.

2.3 TRANSPORT LINKAGES
The district has good linkages to its surroundings and to the rest of the country through its rail and road network. National highway nos. 10, 71 and 71A passes through it as well as broad gauge railway network connects it to national capital territory of Delhi and other major urban centers. All towns and villages are linked to each other and to district headquarter with metalled road. Road length per hundred square km is 14.52 km. In addition to its good network the district enjoys a good transport system with a quite high frequency. State transport and private buses are available for the entire bit centres and towns after a short interval.

2.4 PHYSIOGRAPHY
Plain and some undulating sandy dunes mark the overall topography of the district. The average elevation of the district is about 220 meters above mean sea level. There is gentle slope of about 19 cm. per kilometre from north-east to south-west. The north-eastern part have a number of wide quilled, low land with salict channels slopping from North-North East to South-South West. The hydrologic gradient of ground water is very gentle. (Report on Geohydrological Condition and Scope of Ground Water Development in district, Rohtak)

Rohtak district is comprised of vast Indo-Gangetic alluvial plain. District is sub-divided into following two sub-regions on the basis of soil, topology and climate.

2.4.1 MEHAM PLAIN
The region extends over the Meham tehsil and western part of Rohtak. A branch of it further enters in newly created district of Jhajjar and extends over western part of it. The Meham plain of Rohtak district makes its boundaries with Hissar and Bhiwani districts in west, Jhajjar district in south, Jind and Sonipat district in the north and Rohtak plain in the east. The soil of the region is loamy. Climatically, The region is relatively dry than the Rohtak plain. Due to good network of canals, the region has shown good progress in the field of agriculture.

2.4.2 ROHTAK PLAIN
The region extends over the parts of Rohtak tehsil. It further covers Bahadurgarh tehsil and northern part of Beri tehsil of Jhajjar district. It makes its boundaries with Meham Plain in the west, Sonepat district in the north, and Jhajjar district in the south. The soil found in the region is loam. It is agriculturally well off due to better concentration of rainfall and canal irrigation. Its slope is towards south. Due to its close proximity of Delhi this region has very large industrial development.

2.5 GEOLOGY
The geological structure of the district consists of alluvium (recent), loam (Bhangar and Nadrak), coarse loam (daher and chaeknote). Infect, the district is a part of indo Gangetic alluvial plain ranging from Pleistocene to recent age. Aeolian deposits of sub recent age cap the plains. The sediments comprise of clay, sand and kankar mixed in different proportions. No exposure of hard rocks forming the basement are seen in the area which one as deep as three hundred metres. Geological succession of the area is as under: -

Age
System
Formation
Pleistocene to recent
Recent to sub recent
Alluvial Aeolian sand


2.6 SOILS
The sediments consist of Sand, Silt, Clay, Gravel & Kankar etc. The soil texture varies from Sandy to clayey having a heterogeneous composition with frequent calcium carbonate layers at shallower depths. The soil is coarse to fine loam in texture in most of the area. 10% of the total area is affected by salinity. And Alkalinity problem due to poor drainage, brackish waters and compacts Kankar layer below root zone. (Report on Geohydrological Condition and Scope of Ground Water Development in district, Rohtak)

2.7 CLIMATE
The climate of Rohtak district is sub-tropical, semi arid, Continental and monsoon type. Thus, it has hot summers, cool winters and small rainy season. The winter season starts towards the later half of November and extends till about the middle of March followed by summer, which continues till about the end of June when maximum temperature reaches up to 45º C and dust cyclones are common. After it, Southwest monsoon arrives. The rainy season remains between July to September. The post monsoon months October and November constitute a transitional period from monsoon to winter season.

The climate is ideal for agricultural development, particularly for wheat, rice, sugarcane and cotton crops. Limited rainy season, good and healthy climate is suitable for industrial development also.

2.8 RAINFALL
Annual rainfall of the district is about 58 c.m. Rainfall is unevenly distributed and DDCReases from south east to Southwest. Rainy season starts from July to September. About 80% of the total rainfall is received during this period. Some amount of rainfall is received from western disturbances during winter season. Due to less rainfall and its short duration the agricultural activities is mostly dependent upon canal irrigation and Tubewells.

2.9 DRAINAGE SYSTEM
Rohtak district is a part of Inland drainage basin. The topography of the district is saucer type, therefore, rain water creates flood problems in monsoon season. In order to avoid flood, drains have been dug out. The main source of draining floodwater is drain no. 8, which is contributing a lot of ground water recharge. It enters the district in village Sanghi. It flows along the western side of the district headquarter and leaves the district and enters Jhajjar district near Beri. This drain safeguards the district from floods. Two new drains have been dug after 1995 floods to drain off the water of Meham, Lakhan Majra & Kalanaur area into drain no. 8. These are Meham drain which is 42 Kms. and passes through Kalanaur & Meham blocks covering 33 villages. Second is Lakhan Majra drain, which is 33 Km. Long, covers 23 villages of Meham and Lakhan Majra blocks. These two enters in drain no. 8 at village Kalanaur ultimately going to the river Yamuna.

Jawahar Lal Nehru Feeder & Jhajjar sub branches are the two main canals running in the district with its sub branches, distributeries, minors and sub-minors. Bhiwani and Kalanaur sub-branches enter in the district in the territory of Meham and Lakhan Mara Blocks and feed the area of Kalanaur, Lakhan Majra and Meham blocks. Most of the drainage problem is along canals and its distributeries passing through the district.

There is no perennial river in the district. During rains the water, instead of flowing into some rivers, follows a cause directed towards inland depression in eastern and Southern parts of the district and these areas get flooded.

2.10 HYDROLOGY
The development of an area largely depends over the quality as well as quantity of ground water. As far Rohtak District is concerned ground water occurs in semi-confined to unconfined aquifers. The unconfined aquifers are tapped by dugwells. While the semi-confined aquifers are tapped by shallow Tubewells which are 22,000 in number (annexe 1)

In the district depth to water table ranges between minimum 0.48 metres in village Gugahari (block Rohtak) to maximum 10.25 metres below ground level in village Badwa (Block Meham). Almost the whole area of the district lies within 10 metres of depth to water table below ground level. About 17% area (27646 hectares) falls under water logging conditions i.e. water level upto 3 metres depth below ground level. (Annexe 2)

2.11 NATURAL VEGETATION
The vegetation of this region is dry deciduous scanty, xerophytic and widely dispersed. The dominant type of tree found in the area are Acacia species(Acacia nilotica, Acacia tostilis), Jaal (Salvadora oleoides), Ber (Zizyphus maruitiana) and Shisham (Dalbergia Sisso) etc. are found on the road side and the banks of old canals.

2.12 DEMOGRAPHY
Human capital of an area plays an important role in the development of that region. Development to a large extent is attributed to the quality, quantity, structure and composition of population of an area. The main characteristics of the population of Rohtak district are discussed here in detail.

2.12.1 TREND OF POPULATION
District stands at thirteenth place in terms of population and in terms of area amongst the districts of Haryana. As per 2001 census, the total population of the district is 940036 persons. The growth rate was 22.6% per annum between 1951-61 which went up to 20.99 per annum in 1991-2001, which is much less than the state average growth rate i.e. 28.06 per annum.

Table no. 2

GROWTH OF POPULATION (1971-2001)

Year
Total population
Net increase
Growth rate
1971
   
26.02
1981
   
20.84
1991
776966
 

17.79

2001
940036
135693
20.99

Source Census of India

2.12.2 DENSITY OF POPULATION
Density of population indicates towards the intensity of population on infrastructure and other resources of the region. It also helps to estimate the severity of a calamity if it takes place in a densely populated area. Thus, analysis of density of population has become much important. As per the density data, district ranked 6 in 1991, which went down to 8th rank as per 2001 census. Present density of Rohtak district is 539 persons / sq. km., which is much higher than the national average and state average

Table no. 3

BLOCK WISE DENSITY OF POPULATION (1981-2001)

Block
Density
1981
1991
2001
Meham
 
284
 
Rohtak
 
340

 

Sampla
 
412
 
Lakhan Majra
 
308
 
Kalanaur
 
318
 
District
 
445

539

Source: Census of India

2.12.3 LITERACY
Literacy plays a key role to improve the skills of human capital of the region. if an area has high literacy rate than it will be much easier to make them to understand the importance the preplanning of disaster and will help to create awareness rapidly. High literacy rate also insures high level of community participation. As per year 2001, the district shows literacy rate of 74.56%, which is quiet high than national average and state average.

Table no. 4

LITERACY RATE IN ROHTAK DISTRICT (1991-2001)

Year
Component

Total

Male
Female
1981
Total
   
Rural
     
Urban
     
1991
Rural
     
Urban
     
Total
     
2001
Rural
     
Urban
     
Total
74.56
84.29
63.19
Source: Census of India

The urban areas recorded higher literacy rate (%) than the district average. There is large difference between male and female literacy in the district. The male literacy rate is 84.29 % while female literacy rate is 63.19%.

2.12.4 SEX RATIO
Sex ratio has significant role as it effects the social and economic relationship within a community. In preparation of disaster management too its analysis is essential as male population generally does major rescue work. While females look after the deceased persons and can provide them psychological support.

Table no. 5

SEX RATIO IN ROHTAK DISTRICT (1981-2001)

Year
Total
Rural

Urban

1981
869
   
1991
849
   
2001
847
   
Source: Census of India

In regard to literacy rate, the district has maintained its 15th position in 2001 census as it was in 1991 census. The sex ratio is low due to migration from outside. Low sex ratio at birth, low status of female in society, low literacy, less awareness may be factors, which effects the sex ratio of the district.

2.12.5 URBANISATION
it plays vital role in development of any region. While developing a system for effective management of disasters in the region the study of urbanisation hols important place as urban centres have better infrastructure systems and other facilities as well as a large portion of urban population is skilled in one or other sector. Which can be of great help during a disaster.

Table no. 6

GROWTH OF URBANISATION (1981-2001)

Year
Total population
Total urban population
% of urban population
1981
 
190869
 
1991
776966
253541
 
2001
940036

329550

 

Source: Census of India

The urban population grows rapidly due to industrialisation in-migration from rural areas due to better infrastructure facilities.

2.12.6 OCCUPATIONAL STRUCTURE
The occupational structure of the district will reveal the level of development of economy and the type and nature of economic activities in which people are engaged. While preparing disaster management plan this information will assist the district administration to assign the responsibilities to the different sectors of workforce and may utilise them during the rescue work when a disaster comes. (Annexe 2.3)

2.12.7 SETTLEMENT PATTERN
Settlement pattern considers the size as well as the distance of a particular settlement to its surrounding ones. Such analysis will help to evaluate the extent of damage during disaster and will also help to prepare a network to send the rescue and relief materials to the effected areas.

Table no. 7

DISTRIBUTION OF SETTLEMENTS BY SIZE (1991)

Size
(No of persons)
Settlement
Settlement

% to total

<200
5
3.54
200-499
6
4.25
500-1999
23
16.31
2000-4999
64
45.93
5000-9999
38
26.95
>10000
5
3.54
Total
 
100
Source Census of India

2.13 AGRICULTURE
Agriculture is most effected sector of economy during a disaster like flood and provides much support in rescue work as it fulfils the primary requirement for food as well as raw material for industries. While preparing disaster management plan it becomes necessary to examine the land use pattern and its changes, man-land ratio, cropping pattern and intensity, major crops productivity and surplus production. Here, except productivity and surplus production, all these aspects except productivity and surplus production. Which will be considered in separate chapter during resource analysis.

2.14 LIVESTOCK RESOURCES
During disasters it is not only the human beings but also the livestock who are effected. The 1995 floods of Haryana, 1998 supercyclone and 2001 earthquake of Gujarat are the liveliest examples. In all these situations the animals were very badly effected.

2.15 INDUSTRIES
Ample agricultural resources, availability of skilled labourers, a good network of infrastructure facilities and various incentives offered by Government coupled with its close proximity to Delhi has given good impetus to the new enterprises to establish their industries in the district. Some new industrial centres are coming up fast along N.H.-10 passing through the district. Rohtak is one of the privileged districts to have essential infrastructure facilities. All villages are electrified and well connected by pucca roads. The district is well provided with other essential service like postal service, education/health etc.

The distribution of industrial activities is, however uneven. The majority of industrial units are concentrated at Rohtak only. Some more industries are expected to be shifted to the district because of judgement of Supreme Court to shift some category of industries out of Delhi.

 
 
   
   
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