The sediments consist of Sand, Silt,
Clay, Gravel & Kankar etc. The soil texture
varies from Sandy to clayey having a heterogeneous
composition with frequent calcium carbonate layers
at shallower depths. The soil is coarse to fine
loam in texture in most of the area. 10% of the
total area is affected by salinity. And Alkalinity
problem due to poor drainage, brackish waters
and compacts Kankar layer below root zone. (Report
on Geohydrological Condition and Scope of Ground
Water Development in district, Rohtak)
The climate of Rohtak district is sub-tropical,
semi arid, Continental and monsoon type. Thus,
it has hot summers, cool winters and small rainy
season. The winter season starts towards the later
half of November and extends till about the middle
of March followed by summer, which continues till
about the end of June when maximum temperature
reaches up to 45º C and dust cyclones are
common. After it, Southwest monsoon arrives. The
rainy season remains between July to September.
The post monsoon months October and November constitute
a transitional period from monsoon to winter season.
The climate is ideal for agricultural development,
particularly for wheat, rice, sugarcane and cotton
crops. Limited rainy season, good and healthy
climate is suitable for industrial development
Annual rainfall of the district is about
58 c.m. Rainfall is unevenly distributed and DDCReases
from south east to Southwest. Rainy season starts
from July to September. About 80% of the total
rainfall is received during this period. Some
amount of rainfall is received from western disturbances
during winter season. Due to less rainfall and
its short duration the agricultural activities
is mostly dependent upon canal irrigation and
2.9 DRAINAGE SYSTEM
Rohtak district is a part of Inland drainage basin.
The topography of the district is saucer type,
therefore, rain water creates flood problems in
monsoon season. In order to avoid flood, drains
have been dug out. The main source of draining
floodwater is drain no. 8, which is contributing
a lot of ground water recharge. It enters the
district in village Sanghi. It flows along the
western side of the district headquarter and leaves
the district and enters Jhajjar district near
Beri. This drain safeguards the district from
floods. Two new drains have been dug after 1995
floods to drain off the water of Meham, Lakhan
Majra & Kalanaur area into drain no. 8. These
are Meham drain which is 42 Kms. and passes through
Kalanaur & Meham blocks covering 33 villages.
Second is Lakhan Majra drain, which is 33 Km.
Long, covers 23 villages of Meham and Lakhan Majra
blocks. These two enters in drain no. 8 at village
Kalanaur ultimately going to the river Yamuna.
Jawahar Lal Nehru Feeder & Jhajjar sub branches
are the two main canals running in the district
with its sub branches, distributeries, minors
and sub-minors. Bhiwani and Kalanaur sub-branches
enter in the district in the territory of Meham
and Lakhan Mara Blocks and feed the area of Kalanaur,
Lakhan Majra and Meham blocks. Most of the drainage
problem is along canals and its distributeries
passing through the district.
There is no perennial river in the district.
During rains the water, instead of flowing into
some rivers, follows a cause directed towards
inland depression in eastern and Southern parts
of the district and these areas get flooded.
The development of an area largely depends
over the quality as well as quantity of ground
water. As far Rohtak District is concerned ground
water occurs in semi-confined to unconfined aquifers.
The unconfined aquifers are tapped by dugwells.
While the semi-confined aquifers are tapped by
shallow Tubewells which are 22,000 in number (annexe
In the district depth to water table ranges between
minimum 0.48 metres in village Gugahari (block
Rohtak) to maximum 10.25 metres below ground level
in village Badwa (Block Meham). Almost the whole
area of the district lies within 10 metres of
depth to water table below ground level. About
17% area (27646 hectares) falls under water logging
conditions i.e. water level upto 3 metres depth
below ground level. (Annexe 2)
2.11 NATURAL VEGETATION
The vegetation of this region is dry deciduous
scanty, xerophytic and widely dispersed. The dominant
type of tree found in the area are Acacia species(Acacia
nilotica, Acacia tostilis), Jaal (Salvadora oleoides),
Ber (Zizyphus maruitiana) and Shisham (Dalbergia
Sisso) etc. are found on the road side and the
banks of old canals.
Human capital of an area plays an important
role in the development of that region. Development
to a large extent is attributed to the quality,
quantity, structure and composition of population
of an area. The main characteristics of the population
of Rohtak district are discussed here in detail.
2.12.1 TREND OF POPULATION
District stands at thirteenth place in terms of
population and in terms of area amongst the districts
of Haryana. As per 2001 census, the total population
of the district is 940036 persons. The growth
rate was 22.6% per annum between 1951-61 which
went up to 20.99 per annum in 1991-2001, which
is much less than the state average growth rate
i.e. 28.06 per annum.
Table no. 2
GROWTH OF POPULATION (1971-2001)